Anemia is a condition where the tissues and organs in your body are deprived of essential oxygen since your red blood cell count is too low, or your red blood cells RBC’s are not working effectively.
There are different types of anemia
There are more than 400 various recognized types of anemia, and they fall under 3 basic categories: nutritional, early gotten, or genetic. Although anemia symptoms are essentially the same, the treatment varies depending upon the type:
- Iron deficiency anemia: it is the commonest anemia of all the types. Iron is needed for hemoglobin formation.
- Pernicious anemia or megaloblastic anemia: due to vitamin B12 deficiency.
- Aplastic anemia: due to some factor the body stops making RBC’s.
- Hemolytic anemia: anemia due to excessive blood destruction. As it happens in genetics spherocytosis, genetics hemoglobinopathies.
- Anemia of unpredictable origin: this group consists of anemia related to chronic infection, uremia, rheumatoid arthritis, liver disease and extensive malignant disease.
- Anemia due to shortage of vitamin C as it happens in scurvy.
- Anemia due to shortage of thyroxine.
What are symptoms for anemia?
Anemia signs and symptoms vary depending upon the cause of your anemia. They may include:
- Pale or yellow-colored skin.
- Irregular heartbeats.
- Shortness of breath.
- Dizziness or lightheadedness.
- Chest pain.
- Cold hands and feet.
In the beginning anemia can be so mild that it goes undetected. But symptoms get worse as anemia worsens.
When to see a doctor
Make a consultation with your doctor if you’re feeling tired out for inexplicable factors. Some anemias, such as iron shortage anemia or vitamin B-12 shortage, are common.
Fatigue has lots of causes besides anemia, so do not presume that if you’re tired you should be anemic. Some people discover that their hemoglobin is low, which indicates anemia, when they go to contribute blood. If you’re told that you can’t donate blood because of low hemoglobin, make a visit with your doctor.
What are causes of anemia?
Anemia happens when your blood doesn’t have adequate RBC’s. This can take place if:
- Your body doesn’t make adequate RBC’s.
- Bleeding causes you to lose RBC’s quicker than they can be replaced.
- Your body destroys RBC’s.
What red blood cells do
Your body makes 3 types of blood cells– white blood cells to fight infection, platelets to assist your blood clot and RBC’s to bring oxygen throughout your body.
RBC’s contain hemoglobin– an iron-rich protein that provides blood its red color. Hemoglobin allows red blood cells to bring oxygen from your lungs to all parts of your body and to bring carbon dioxide from other parts of the body to your lungs so that it can be exhaled.
A lot of blood cells, including RBC’s, are produced frequently in your bone marrow– a spongy product found within the cavities of many of your large bones. To produce hemoglobin and RBC’s, your body requires iron, vitamin B-12, folate and other nutrients from the foods you eat.
Causes of anemia
Various types of anemia and their causes include:
- Iron deficiency anemia. This is the most common type of anemia worldwide. Iron deficiency anemia is caused by a shortage of iron in your body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin. Without adequate iron, your body can’t produce adequate hemoglobin for RBC’s.
- Without iron supplements, this type of anemia happens in lots of pregnant women. It is likewise caused by blood loss, such as from heavy menstrual bleeding, an ulcer, cancer and routine use of some over the counter pain relievers, specifically aspirin.
- Vitamin shortage anemia. In addition to iron, your body needs folate and vitamin B-12 to produce sufficient healthy RBC’s. A diet doing not have in these and other essential nutrients can cause reduced red blood cell production.
- Furthermore, some individuals may take in adequate B-12, however their bodies aren’t able to process the vitamin. This can result in vitamin shortage anemia, also called pernicious anemia.
- Anemia of chronic disease. Particular diseases– such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, Crohn’s disease and other chronic inflammatory illness– can interfere with the production of RBC’s.
- Aplastic anemia. This unusual, dangerous anemia occurs when your body doesn’t produce sufficient red blood cells. Causes of aplastic anemia include infections, particular medications, autoimmune diseases and exposure to harmful chemicals.
- Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. A variety of illness, such as leukemia and myelofibrosis, can cause anemia by impacting blood production in your bone marrow. The impacts of these types of cancer and cancer-like conditions vary from mild to life-threatening.
- Hemolytic anemias. This group of anemias develops when RBC’s are destroyed much faster than bone marrow can replace them. Particular blood diseases increase red cell destruction. You can inherit a hemolytic anemia, or you can establish it later in life.
- Sickle cell anemia. This inherited and often serious condition is an inherited hemolytic anemia. It’s caused by a malfunctioning kind of hemoglobin that forces RBC’s to assume an unusual crescent (sickle) shape. These irregular blood cells pass away prematurely, leading to a chronic scarcity of red blood cells.
- Other anemias. There are a number of other kinds of anemia, such as thalassemia and malarial anemia.
Diagnosis of anemia
To diagnose anemia, your doctor may ask you about your medical and family history, perform a physical exam, and run the following tests:
- Complete blood count (CBC). A CBC is used to count the number of blood cells in a sample of your blood. For anemia your doctor will have an interest in the levels of the red blood cells contained in the blood (hematocrit) and the hemoglobin in your blood. Typical adult hematocrit values differ from one medical practice to another but are normally between 40 and 52 percent for men and 35 and 47 percent for women. Regular adult hemoglobin values are generally 14 to 18 grams per deciliter for men and 12 to 16 grams per deciliter for women.
- A test to figure out the shapes and size of your RBC’s . Some of your RBC’s may likewise be analyzed for unusual size, shape and color.
Extra diagnostic tests
If you receive a diagnosis of anemia, your doctor might purchase extra tests to identify the underlying cause. For instance, iron shortage anemia can arise from chronic bleeding of ulcers, benign polyps in the colon, colon cancer, tumors or kidney problems.
Periodically, it may be required to study a sample of your bone marrow to diagnose anemia.
Treatment of anemia
Anemia treatment depends on the cause.
- Iron shortage anemia. Treatment for this type of anemia generally includes taking iron supplements and making changes to your diet. If the underlying cause of iron shortage is loss of blood– besides from menstruation– the source of the bleeding must be located and stopped. This might include surgery.
- Vitamin deficiency anemias. Treatment for folic acid and B-12 shortage involves dietary supplements and increasing these nutrients in your diet. If your digestive system has trouble taking in vitamin B-12 from the food you eat, you may need vitamin B-12 shots. Initially, you may get the shots every other day. Ultimately, you’ll require shots simply as soon as a month, which might continue for life, depending on your scenario.
- Anemia of chronic disease. There’s no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Physicians focus on treating the underlying disease. If symptoms become severe, a blood transfusion or injections of artificial erythropoietin, a hormone normally produced by your kidneys, might help stimulate red cell production and ease tiredness.
- Aplastic anemia. Treatment for this anemia might include blood transfusions to increase levels of RBC’s. You might require a bone marrow transplant if your bone marrow is infected and cannot make healthy blood cells.
- Anemias related to bone marrow disease. Treatment of these different diseases can include medication, chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.
- Hemolytic anemias. Handling hemolytic anemias includes avoiding suspect medications, treating associated infections and taking drugs that reduce your body immune system, which might be assaulting your red blood cells. Depending upon the intensity of your anemia, a blood transfusion or plasmapheresis might be essential. Plasmapheresis is a type of blood-filtering procedure. In specific cases, elimination of the spleen can be handy.
- Sickle cell anemia. Treatment for this anemia may include the administration of oxygen, pain-relieving drugs, and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications. Physicians likewise might suggest blood transfusions, folic acid supplements and antibiotics. A bone marrow transplant might be a reliable treatment in some scenarios. A cancer drug called hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea) also is used to treat sickle cell anemia.
- Thalassemia. This anemia might be treated with blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, medication, elimination of the spleen (splenectomy), or a blood and bone marrow stem cell transplant.
Home Remedy for Anemia
- Diet making up all the necessary elements required by the body is essential to treat anemia. Cereals, rice, milk products, vegetables and green leafy vegetables, meat and poultry, fish and nuts, eggs, beans and so on.
- Iron rich food such as liver, green leafy vegetables, wild rice, oysters, raisins and prunes, whole grain flour.
- Apple is rich source of iron, eat a couple of apples in a day, it is one of the easiest natural home remedy for anemia.
- Food cooked in iron pots increases iron content in the food.
- Eat citrus fruits they are helpful in taking in iron from the intestine. Drink a glass of orange with beat root and carrot root juice.