Manganese is a trace mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological procedures throughout the body. It is nutritionally vital just in small amounts, yet manganese is crucial to life. Manganese is readily available in different foods, nevertheless according to the University of Maryland Medical Center, it is estimated that as numerous as 37 percent of Americans do not satisfy the recommended daily consumption for this mineral. Low levels of manganese in the body can cause a range of health complications.
Signs of manganese deficiency include impaired growth, impaired reproductive function, skeletal abnormalities, impaired glucose tolerance, and transformed carb and lipid metabolic process. A child on long-lasting overall parenteral nutrition (TPN) lacking manganese established bone demineralization and impaired growth that were fixed by manganese supplements. Boy who were fed a low-manganese diet developed decreased serum cholesterol levels and a short-term skin rash.
Blood calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels were also elevated, which may indicate increased bone remodeling as a consequence of inadequate dietary manganese. Girls fed a manganese-poor diet established mildly unusual glucose tolerance in reaction to an intravenous (IV) infusion of glucose. In general, manganese shortage is not typical, and there is more concern for toxicity related to manganese overexposure.
Function of Manganese
The human body includes around 15 to 20 mg of manganese, which is primarily found in the bones, liver, kidney, pancreas, adrenal and pituitary glands. It helps the body kind connective tissue, blood clot aspects and sex hormones. It is works as a cofactor to anti-oxidants and is essential for the metabolic process of carbs, fat, amino acids and cholesterol. It plays a role in calcium absorption, blood sugar policy, bone health, injury recovery and correct brain and nerve function.
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the primary antioxidant enzyme in the mitochondria. Since mitochondria consume over 90% of the oxygen used by cells, they are specifically vulnerable to oxidative stress. The superoxide radical is among the reactive oxygen species produced in mitochondria during ATP synthesis. MnSOD catalyzes the conversion of superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide, which can be decreased to water by other antioxidant enzymes.
A number of manganese-activated enzymes play essential functions in the metabolic process of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. Pyruvate carboxylase, a manganese-containing enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), a manganese-activated enzyme, are crucial in gluconeogenesis– the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.
Arginase, another manganese-containing enzyme, is needed by the liver for the urea cycle, a procedure that cleanses ammonia produced during amino acid metabolism. In the brain, the manganese-activated enzyme, glutamine synthetase, transforms the amino acid glutamate to glutamine. Glutamate is an excitotoxic neurotransmitter and a precursor to a repressive neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Manganese deficiency results in irregular skeletal development in a number of animal species. Manganese is the favored cofactor of enzymes called glycosyltransferases; these enzymes are required for the synthesis of proteoglycans that are required for the formation of healthy cartilage and bone.
Injury healing is an intricate process that requires increased production of collagen. Manganese is needed for the activation of prolidase, an enzyme that operates to offer the amino acid, proline, for collagen formation in human skin cells. A genetic disorder referred to as prolidase deficiency leads to irregular wound healing among other problems, and is identified by unusual manganese metabolism. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis, which needs manganese-activated glycosyltransferases, might also play an essential function in wound recovery.
Sufficient Intake Level
The Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine developed a sufficient consumption level for manganese. These requirements differ by age and gender. Teenage kids ages 14 to 18 need 2.2 mg and teenage girls ages 14 to 18 require 1.6 mg of manganese each day.
Men over the age of 19 require 2.3 mg and women older than 19 require 1.8 mg of manganese each day. Pregnant women require 2.0 mg and breast-feeding women require 2.6 mg of manganese daily. Your dietary consumption of manganese and extra manganese must not surpass 10 mg each day due to the risk of nervous system side effects.
Although a number of Americans do not consume a sufficient quantity of manganese, a true shortage of this mineral is thought about uncommon. A shortage generally takes place just if manganese is removed from the diet. The most typical cause of low manganese levels is a poor dietary consumption.
Other elements include malabsorption, antacid or oral contraceptive use that hinder its absorption, extreme sweating because large quantities of manganese is lost in sweating, excess iron, copper or magnesium because they diminish manganese, and chronic liver or gallbladder disorders, which raise intake requirements.
Manganese is associated with several biochemical processes and can, for that reason, negatively impact a number of systems throughout the body. Low levels of manganese in the body can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, modified carb and fat metabolism, skeletal irregularities, bone demineralization and malformation, stunted growth, decreased serum cholesterol levels, skin rash and elevated blood calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels.
In addition, manganese shortages can result in infertility, seizures, weakness, queasiness or vomiting, dizziness, hearing loss, iron-deficiency anemia, weak hair and nails and convulsions, loss of sight or paralysis in babies.
Foods That Inhibit Manganese
Foods which contain phytic acid, such as beans, seeds, nuts, whole grains and soy products, or foods high in oxalic acid, such as cabbage, sweet potatoes, and cabbage, can moderately prevent manganese absorption. Cooking these foods might help neutralize this result. While tea is a good source of manganese, the tannins present in tea might somewhat reduce its absorption. Additionally, the intake of other minerals, including phosphorus, calcium and iron, has been discovered to restrict the body’s ability to retain manganese.
Nutrient interactions and Manganese
Although the particular mechanisms for manganese absorption and transport have not been determined, some evidence recommends that iron and manganese can share common absorption and transportation paths. Absorption of manganese from a meal reduces as the meal’s iron content increases. Iron supplements (60 mg/day for four months) was related to reduced blood manganese levels and reduced MnSOD activity in white blood cells, suggesting a decrease in manganese nutritional status.
In addition, a person’s iron status can affect manganese bioavailability. Digestive tract absorption of manganese is increased during iron deficiency, and increased iron stores (ferritin levels) are associated with reduced manganese absorption. Men normally take in less manganese than women; this might be connected to the fact that men typically have higher iron shops than women. Even more, iron deficiency has been revealed to increase the risk of manganese build-up in the brain.
Supplemental magnesium (200 mg/day) has been revealed to slightly reduce manganese bioavailability in healthy adults, either by reducing manganese absorption or by increasing its excretion.
In one set of studies, supplemental calcium (500 mg/day) slightly decreased manganese bioavailability in healthy adults. As a source of calcium, milk had the least impact, while calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate had the best impact. A number of other studies have discovered very little impacts of additional calcium on manganese metabolic process.
How to Prevention Deficiency (Manganese)
Low dietary manganese or low levels of manganese in blood or tissue have been connected with a number of chronic illness. Although manganese insufficiency is not presently believed to cause the illness talked about listed below, more research might be called for to figure out whether suboptimal manganese nutritional status contributes to certain disease procedures.
Women with osteoporosis have been found to have reduced plasma or serum levels of manganese as well as a boosted plasma response to an oral dosage of manganese, suggesting they might have lower manganese status than women without osteoporosis. Yet, a more current study in postmenpausal women with and without osteoporosis did not discover any differences in plasma levels of manganese.
A study in healthy postmenopausal women found that a supplement consisting of manganese (5 mg/day), copper (2.5 mg/day), and zinc (15 mg/day) in combination with a calcium supplement (1,000 mg/day) was more efficient than the calcium supplement alone in avoiding spine bone loss over a two-year period. Nevertheless, the presence of other micronutrient in the supplement makes it difficult to identify whether manganese supplementation was the helpful agent for preserving bone mineral density.
Manganese deficiency results in glucose intolerance similar to diabetes mellitus in some animal types, however studies analyzing the manganese status of diabetic human beings have created combined results. In one study, entire blood manganese levels did not vary substantially between 57 diabetics and 28 non-diabetic controls.
However, urinary manganese excretion tended to be a little higher in 185 diabetics compared to 185 non-diabetic controls. A case-control research study of 250 diabetic and non-diabetic people found that type 2 diabetic people had greater serum manganese levels than non-diabetics. Nevertheless, a more recent research study in 257 type 2 diabetics and 166 non-diabetic controls discovered lower blood levels of manganese in the diabetic patients.
Additionally, a study of practical manganese status found the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, MnSOD, was lower in the white blood cells of diabetics than in non-diabetics. Neither 15 mg nor 30 mg of oral manganese improved glucose tolerance in diabetics or non-diabetic controls when provided at the same time as an oral glucose challenge. Although manganese appears to play a role in glucose metabolism, there is little proof that manganese supplementation enhances glucose tolerance in diabetic or non-diabetic individuals.
Manganese lacking rats are more prone to seizures than manganese enough rats, and rats that are genetically vulnerable to epilepsy have lower than regular brain and blood manganese levels. Specific subgroups of humans with epilepsy apparently have lower whole blood manganese levels than non-epileptic controls.
One research study discovered blood manganese levels of people with epilepsy of unidentified origin were lower than those of people whose epilepsy was induced by trauma (e.g., head injury) or disease, suggesting a possible genetic relationship in between epilepsy and abnormal manganese metabolic process. While manganese deficiency does not seem a cause of epilepsy in human beings, the relationship in between manganese metabolism and epilepsy is worthy of more research.
Food Sources of Manganese
In the United States, estimated typical dietary manganese intakes range from 2.1 to 2.3 mg/day for men and 1.6 to 1.8 mg/day for women. Individuals eating vegetarian diets and Western-type diets might have manganese consumptions as high as 10.9 mg/day. Rich sources of manganese include entire grains, nuts, leafy vegetables, and teas.
Foods high in phytic acid, such as beans, seeds, nuts, entire grains, and soy products, or foods high in oxalic acid, such as cabbage, spinach, and sweet potatoes, may somewhat prevent manganese absoare abundant sources of manganese, the tannins present in tea might reasonably reduce the absorption of manganese. Consumption of other minerals, including iron, calcium, and phosphorus, have been discovered to restrict retention of manganese. To learn more on the nutrition content of foods, browse the USDA food structure database.
Foods abundant in manganese include fruits such as pineapple, grapes, kiwi and berries; vegetables like dark leafy greens, beets, sweet potatoes, celery, squash and carrots; nuts and seeds; legumes; soy products like tofu and tempeh; egg yolks; entire grains such as brown rice, oatmeal, raisin bran, quinoa, barley and spelt; herbs and spices like peppermint, cinnamon, cloves and thyme; molasses; syrup and tea. The approximated typical dietary manganese consumption range from 2.1 to 2.3 mg per day for men and 1.6 to 1.8 mg each day for women.
Side Effects of High Manganese
Manganese toxicity might result in multiple neurologic problems and is a well-recognized health hazard for people who breathe in manganese dust, such as welders and smelters. Unlike ingested manganese, breathed in manganese is carried straight to the brain prior to it can be metabolized in the liver.
The symptoms of manganese toxicity usually appear slowly over a period of months to years. In its worst form, manganese toxicity can result in an irreversible neurological disorder with symptoms just like those of Parkinson’s disease, including tremblings, problem walking, and facial muscle spasms.
This syndrome, typically called manganism, is sometimes preceded by psychiatric symptoms, such as irritation, aggressiveness, as well as hallucinations. In addition, environmental or occupational inhalation of manganese can cause an inflammatory action in the lungs. Medical symptoms of effects to the lung include cough, intense bronchitis, and reduced lung function.
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