Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)

Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)

Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) is a condition caused by the repeated movement of a muscle, tendon, or nerve, leading to pain, stiffness, and weakness in the affected area. Also known as Repetitive Stress Injury, it commonly affects people who perform repetitive tasks in their daily work, such as computer users or assembly line workers.

Athletes, sport enthusiasts, and people with poor posture may also develop RSI. It is important to seek early diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term damage.

Treatment options include modifying or reducing the activity that caused the injury, rest and exercise, medications, physical therapy, and surgery. 

Common causes

  1. Repetitive motions: Doing the same motion or activity repeatedly can cause RSI. For example, typing on a computer or playing an instrument for long periods.
  2. Forceful exertions: Using excessive force while performing a task can also cause RSI. Lifting heavy objects or using tools that require a lot of force can put a strain on your muscles and cause injury.
  3. Awkward postures: Holding a position or posture for prolonged periods can cause RSI. Slouching or holding your arms in an awkward position while using a mouse or keyboard can lead to injury.
  4. Poor ergonomics: Incorrect posture or an improperly set up workstation can put a strain on your muscles and cause RSI. Using ergonomic equipment or adjusting your work environment can help prevent injury.
  5. Psychological stress: Stress can worsen the symptoms of RSI. High levels of stress can lead to muscle tension, which can cause injury over time.
  6. Vibrations: Exposure to constant vibrations, such as from operating heavy machinery or power tools, can cause RSI. Taking frequent breaks and wearing protective gear can help prevent injury. 


Symptoms of Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI):

  • Pain, tenderness, or stiffness in the affected area
  • Tingling, numbness, or weakness in the affected area
  • Reduced range of motion or flexibility in the affected area
  • A feeling of fatigue or weakness in the affected area
  • A throbbing or pulsating sensation in the affected area
  • Loss of grip strength or dexterity in the affected area

These symptoms may worsen during or after activity and improve with rest. It’s important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen, as early diagnosis and treatment can prevent long-term damage. 

Information verified by the team.

Who is at Risk of Developing RSI?

People who perform repetitive tasks in their work

People who perform repetitive tasks in their work are at high risk of developing a repetitive strain injury (RSI). Office workers who spend long hours typing on a computer or performing data entry tasks are particularly susceptible to RSIs. People who work in assembly lines, construction sites or other manual labor jobs are also at risk. Employers have a responsibility to provide their employees with ergonomic workstations and encourage regular breaks to prevent RSIs. Additionally, employees can benefit from stretching exercises and strengthening programs to help reduce the risk of RSIs.

Athletes and sport enthusiasts

Athletes and sport enthusiasts are highly susceptible to repetitive strain injury (RSI). This type of injury occurs when the micro trauma of training exceeds the body’s ability to repair itself between workouts. Athletes who repeat one predominant movement pattern over and over are at particular risk of developing pattern overload injuries. Using resistance machines can also contribute to RSI, especially if the machine is not ergonomically suitable for the athlete’s body. To minimize the risk of injury, athletes should rotate and split up their machine training, mix up their routine, and avoid training while in pain.

People with poor posture

People with poor posture are at risk of developing repetitive strain injury (RSI) due to the constant strain on certain muscles, tendons, and nerves. Poor posture can be caused by a variety of factors, including prolonged sitting, incorrect desk ergonomics, and improper lifting technique. It is important to address poor posture to prevent RSI and other musculoskeletal problems. Simple solutions include taking frequent breaks, adjusting your workstation, and engaging in regular exercise to strengthen the affected muscles. Seeking professional advice from a physiotherapist can also be beneficial.

How RSI is Diagnosed?

Physical exam

During a physical exam for repetitive strain injury, your healthcare provider will assess the affected area and check for any signs of inflammation or swelling. They may also review your medical history and ask you questions about your symptoms and daily routine to identify any repetitive activities that could be causing your injury. Depending on your symptoms, your provider may also order imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI, or ultrasound to rule out other conditions. The physical exam is an important step in the diagnosis of RSI and can help determine the best course of treatment to manage your symptoms.

Imaging tests

Imaging tests like X-rays, MRI, and CT scans are not commonly used to diagnose repetitive strain injuries (RSI) unless surgery is being considered or there is a suspicion of an old fracture. X-rays can detect stress fractures, thinning and drying up of cartilage and bone atrophy, bone avulsions, and calcium deposits on tendons. MRI scans help detect damage to muscles, tendons, and ligaments as well as soft tissues. Electromyography and nerve conduction studies are often prescribed to check on nerve functions in these cases. Bone scans may also be required to reveal stress fractures.

Treatment for RSI

Modify or reduce activity that caused the injury

The best treatment for a repetitive strain injury is to modify or reduce the activity that caused the injury. This will prevent any further damage to your body. Here are some ways to modify your daily routine: 

  • Change your work setup: Adjust the height of your desk and chair, position your monitor at eye level, and use a keyboard and mouse that are comfortable for you.
  • Take breaks: Take short breaks every 20-30 minutes to stretch and move around. Don’t stay in one position for too long.
  • Mix up your routine: If you need to do a repetitive task, try to vary your approach and incorporate breaks in between.
  • Strengthen your body: Incorporate exercises into your routine that strengthen the muscles and joints you use for your task. 

By modifying or reducing the activity that caused the injury, you can prevent further damage and give your body a chance to heal.

Rest and exercise

Rest and exercise are important in the treatment of repetitive strain injury (RSI). Resting the affected area for more than a few days can weaken the body part and make it less flexible. However, it is equally important to avoid overusing the injured part while it heals. Following the R.I.C.E. method can help in treating RSI symptoms at home. Applying a cold compress, wrapping with an elastic bandage, keeping the injury above the level of the heart can help reduce swelling. Exercise can help strengthen muscles and improve posture, but it is recommended to consult a physiotherapist for guidance.


Medications are a common treatment option for repetitive strain injury (RSI). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like Aspirin and Ibuprofen can help relieve pain, stiffness, and inflammation. Local application of hot or cold packs can also ease symptoms. In some cases, steroids may be prescribed to reduce inflammation. Sleeping tablets may be recommended for patients who have trouble sleeping. It is important to discuss medication options with a healthcare professional to ensure the proper treatment plan.

Physical therapy

Physical therapy is a proven treatment for Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI). People who spend long hours on computers, mobile phones, playing musical instruments, or participating in sports are particularly susceptible. Physical therapists can help to reduce swelling, pain, and inflammation in tendons, muscles, and joints. They accomplish this by using non-harmful exercises, therapeutic modalities, and manual therapy interventions tailored to the person’s needs. Physical therapy can restore normal body function and speed up the healing process, resulting in better movement efficiency.


Surgery is rarely needed for repetitive strain injury (RSI), but it may be recommended if the condition is severe. The type of surgery will depend on the specific injury and the affected area of the body. The goal of surgery is to repair any damage and reduce symptoms. Some surgical interventions that may be considered include nerve releases, tendon repairs, or joint replacements. It’s important to note that surgery is usually a last resort and that most people with RSI can manage their symptoms and get better without surgery.

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